The Complete A-Z Of Triathlon Jargon


Terminology of everything Triathlon all on one web site

Triathlon Encyclopedia (Encyclopaedia)
The list is endless but we have added over 100 of the most common words and abbreviated things that are used in triathlon. Some are unique to triathlon while others were first used in single sports like swimming cycling & running.
We do not wish to make the world of triathlon too complicated, see below our a-z triathlon jargon list to help you better understand the sport.
The list below only briefly describes each jargon word many more words are needed to give a much clearer description. A full detail of the list below will be available soon.
If you know of any we have missed send us an e mail?

ABSOLUTE POWER OUTPUT – this is your average power you generate. This could be the average power for a time trial or triathlon.

ACID – Low intensity active cool down

ADAPTATION PHASE – a period of training those changes from one style to another. It could be changing from endurance to pre competition.

ADRENALINE – Fight or flight hormone. Released to increase our ability to use oxygen also improves better glucose use.
AERO- this can be referring to a tear drop aero helmet or getting into the triathlon tri bar position making you more aerodynamic when cycling.

AEROBIC – exercise that uses oxygen usually under 80% of MHR for that sport.
Expect the max to be higher for the run than the cycle and higher for the cycle than the swim.

AEROBARS – using aero or clip on tri bars allow you to be more aerodynamic than standard drop cycle bars. If you’re set up is correct you will be lower and narrower at the front in the aero position and will go faster for less energy.

ALOHA – The Hawaiian word means hello, goodbye, I love you depending on the tone of the voice and whatever the contextual use is.
Radicals which causes damage at the cellular level. This can result in ill health and slow recovery. Foods that contain anti-oxidants reduce this damage.

ANAEROBIC - exercise without using oxygen AT/LT approx 80/85% of MHR

ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD (AT) – the training zone that you can only maintain for about 60 minutes.

AQUATHON – Non stop swim and run event.

AT/LT: ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD – when the work rate produces more lactate than the liver can remove. Then muscular contractions have to slow down.

ATP:Adenosine Tri-Phosphate - is the main energy fuel. Glycogen/ Carbohydrates/Protein/Fats are broken down to ATP.

ATZ – Anaerobic Threshold Zone (80-90%) is the highest intensity you can maintain during an interval or a hard climb on the bike. A sign is a burning feeling in your legs.

ARHR – Average Resting Heart Rate is the number of beats your heart beats when you wake up in the morning.

BAR END SHIFTERS –to avoid coming out of the aero tri bar position you have gear levers fitted to the ends of the aero bars/tri bars so you can change gear.

BEANS – this is often referred to energy beans carried during cycling and running. Sport beans

BIKE FIT – spending time getting your bike to fit you will improve your performance and comfort and allow you to run well after. Expect it to take 1,000 miles (1600km) before you and your muscles get use to any changes in position.
Seek expert advice and expect to take an hour to make adjustments.

BP – BP1 breathe very stroke, BP2 Breathe every 2 strokes, B3 Breathe every 3 strokes.

BIT & BIT –  the front cyclist moves to the side from where the wind is blowing and works at a much harder pace than the riders behind who are sheltered in his slip stream. The front rider then drops back slowly usually from the side that the wind is blowing and the second rider now works at the front against the wind resistance. The rider that was at the front now is at the back and recovers until it is their turn to be at the front again.

BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL – amount of glucose currently in the blood.

BONK – it’s the feeling when an athlete runs out of energy, like hitting the wall in the marathon. Light headed very low blood energy available. In many circumstances very difficult to carry on or a drastic reduction in speed.

BRICK SESSION – This is combing 2 sports together. It is usually a bike to run or swim to bike for Triathlon or a run to bike for duathlon. A multiple Brick session can be a Bike then run followed shortly after by another bike then run. High intensity keeps good form.

BTF – British Triathlon Federation is the national governing body for the sport of triathlon in Great Britain.

CADENCE – The frequency of your legs spinning on a bike or number of strides per minute when running.
If you do not have a cadence monitor count your strokes for 15 seconds and multiply four times for RPM for 60 seconds.
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CARDIAC DRIFT – this is the increase in the heart rate not caused by going faster but as a result of fatigue, dehydration and heat.

CATCH UP – When swimming front crawl extend your right arm as far as possible past your left hand before pulling back your left hand.
So called because you wait till the entering hand catches up and passes the hand that is already extended.
CC Compression clothing.

CT Compression Tights.

CHIP TIMING – this is a transponder that is unique to each athlete. When the athlete crosses the start line intermediate timing mats and the finish line their times are recorded. Champion Chip & RFID are just two of the many brands available. In running you wear the chip on your shoe and in a Triathlon you attach it to some neoprene and wear it around your ankle for the swim bike run.

COMPRESSION CLOTHING – the clothing is designed to push the blood back towards the heart which will then delay the onset of lactic acid build up.
Compression clothing also works because it is designed to compress and hold the muscles together in their correct anatomical position. Manufactures claim that they hold muscles together, reducing muscle vibration which then reduces the fatigue created by this vibration.

CO2 (Cartridge) – Used in with a fitment to put air into a tyre in seconds saving precious time should you get a flat.

CROSS TRAIINING (CT) – this can be a different exercise to your main sport. I.e. if you compete in triathlon swimming cycling and running you may cross train on a concept 2 rowing machine. Cross training can also be referred to as two consecutive exercises or using two muscle groups at the same time.

CRITICAL POWER: CP – this is your average power watts for a given distance.

CT Compression Tights.

DECA IRONMAN – 10 times the ironman distance. The athlete covers 24 miles cycles 1112 miles then cover 262 mile on foot taking 8 hours with 1-2 hours sleep each day.

DECATHLON - Olympic event-10 Tack & Feild events. Involving  100m, log jump, shot put, high jump, 400m hurdles, discuss, pole vault, javelin and fisnihing with 1500m. Daley Thompson Olympic decathlon champion Los Angeles.

DESCENDING – when each repetition is quicker than the previous.
For example 100m swim splits 1:58 then 1:51 then 1:47; then 1:45

DNF – did not finish the race.

DNS – did not start the race.

DOMS – Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness is damaged caused by micro-scopic damage to muscle fibres. Soreness or pain usually gets worse in the 24 hours after exercise that caused it. Expect pain to go without treatment in 2-7 days.

DOUBLE IRON – this is a triathlon that is twice the Ironman distance 4.8 mile Swim 224 miles cycling and 52.4 miles running. Non-stop no sleep CONTINOUS triathlon. John Quinn Huntsville Alabama 1994 recorded a course record of 19 hours: 36 minutes. Mark Kleanthous did 23 hours 51 minutes.

DOWN STROKE – The movement completed when cycling that generates 85% of your cycling power.

DRAFTING – in the slip stream of another competitor will save energy. There is a drafting zone in cycling if you stay inside this distance you can get a time penalty or be disqualified. Check your race information for more details. Also known as a technique work out which should be incorporated at least once a week in swimming cycling and running during the warm up and warm down.

DRAFTING – cycling is a pack is only allowed in elite races or special events. In non drafting races you have to keep a certain distance apart.

DRAFT BUSTERS are marshals on motorbikes or stationary who look for anyone breaking the rules in a non drafting triathlon. Depending on the vent and severity of the offence you can be given a warning a time penalty that is either added to your time or you are held in a sin bin or a stop and go time penalty where you have to stop put both feet down and your time penalty begins. Once time has elapsed you are able to continue, if you re-offend then you are disqualified and have the letters DQ by your name in the race results for all to see.
Wetsuit is a neoprene suit used when the water temperature is between 14° and 22° degrees

DRILLS – This can be a swim cycle or run drill. Emphasis on one part of the movement. Swim drill could involve catching the water getting more feel or the push back phase. Cycling  drill can be single legged cycling emphasis to improve a more full circular movement or working on lifting the knee up rather than just pushing down. Running drill can put emphasis on more economical movement reducing contact time on foot landing and pushing off. Improving leg kick and better use of the arms to help you run faster.

DQ – when DQ appears after the name of an athlete in the results it means that they have been disqualified. Always read the race information, obey the races and concentrate.

DUATHLON – Run bike run. The standard powerman distance is 10kn run 40km bike 5km run.

ENDURANCE ZONE – is the training zone you train at 60-70% of max heart rate to build up endurance.

FARTLEK (Swedish word for speed play) – Running usually off road either structured (time or distance) or unstructured (as you feel different distances) fast and slow speeds not necessary flat out intervals just a different change of pace.

FUEL BELT – used for carrying fluids gels bars and salt tablets generally during the run section.

GELS – a pouch containing energy, the athletes best friend. Companies manufacturing gels include Accelerade Cliff, GU , High5, Honey Stinger ,  Maxim power bar, Leppin ,Torq bars and gels Power bar  , Science in sport
Check each individual packet as calories can vary with even with different each flavours. Expect about 100 calories of easily digestible carbohydrates.

GLUCOSE – small amount of carbohydrate in the blood available and ready to use for energy.
GRANNY RING – also known as the little front ring on a bike.
GPS – Global positioning system using satellite technology. Tells you where you are. The top spec ones tell you how far you have travelled, height climbed heart rate.

HAMMER – describes hammering the bike or flying along. Just like nailing the bike. Fast and almost effortless.

HAEMOGLOBIN – the red blood cells have a protein called haemoglobin, oxygen attaches itself to the haemoglobin in the lungs and the oxygen rich cells are carried around the body in the blood stream to the cells.
Training cannot increase your haemoglobin in some athletes.

HGH– human growth hormone that is needed for growth.

HIT THE WALL – a phrase coined from the marathon where you felt you had literally hit the wall and had stopped and could not go any further. Sudden energy levels that caused a sudden drop in speed.

HYPERTONIC DRINKS – Hyper means more.
This type of drink is known as a high energy drink and has a concentration of 10 % which is much higher in carbohydrate than isotonic drinks. They provide large amounts of quick energy but hydration is much slower than an isotonic drink which is absorbed into the body the quickest. Getting the balance right between enough energy & hydration is crucial for optimum performance.
We are all different and you need to adapt your drinks to also suit the environment so don’t use the same drinks for all conditions.
Remember to experiment in training first before a big competition.

HYPOTONIC DRINKS – Hypo means below.
This type of drink is known as a carbohydrate –electrolyte drink and has a concentration of 3-4 % which is lower in carbohydrate than isotonic drinks.
This drink will contain electrolytes like sodium needed to maintain performance.
This should be your preferred choice for racing when it is hot or humid or both especially when sweat rates increase.

HR – Heart Rate.

HRM – Heart rate monitor

H&C – Hot and cold recovery.

HYDRODYNAMIC – the force on an object in the water. Wetsuits are designed to create less resistance so you can swim faster.

HYPONTREMIA (low blood sodium levels)– if you just have water you risk
You can avoid this condition which can be fatal by having salt tablets.

ILT = Isolated leg training by applying as much pressure on one leg. This practise is often done in on a gym spin bike.

INTERVALS – hard intensity training with recovery between. Depending on what you hope to achieve a long recovery is taken to go fast during the intensity or a short recovery to build up endurance and get use to extreme fatigue. Intervals work because you train the HEART and MUSLCES to work at higher ranges then the heart has to recover in a fatigued state, fitness is all about recovery and improving cardiovascular endurance.

IRONMAN 70.3 – This is the official name for the half distance of the ironman Triathlon so named because you swim bike and run 70.3 miles.

IRONMAN DISTANCE – 2.4 mile Swim 112 mile Cycle 26.2 mile Marathon.

IRONMAN FAMILY – when you have completed an Ironman you are part of the Ironman family.

IRONMAN WIDOW – a partner of a high motivated ambitious triathlete who is in Ironman training, she hardly ever see him because he is so busy training. When they are around they are so tired and vacant they hardly exist and never want to do anything outside triathlon. Often this type of triathlete underperforms trains harder next time, it’s a viscous circle until they learn the smart way to train.

IRT – A triathlon that is starts run bike swim called a In Reverse Triathlon.

ISOTONIC DRINKS contain 5-8% (5-8grams of carbohydrate per 100ml of water)
Most drink manufacturers use this concentration in their ready to drink sports drinks. 5-8% is considered to be the best ratio to improve absorption & performance

HR – Heart Rate.

M-dot -The M-dot was born back in the days when the Hawaii Ironman was the only event of its kind. As triathlons grew in popularity, the logo came to represent the absolute pinnacle of the sport, attainable by only a select tier of talented competitors. Today, the Kona race remains the universally acknowledged world championship of long distance triathlon, with the M-dot its most easily recognized representation.

MAGIC MARKER – A felt tip pen to number your arms and legs with.

NAIL IT – precise accurate performance usually on the bike like banging in a nail straight without any problem. Failing to nail it will be like just bashing at a nail bending it and having to start again.

NEGATIVE SPLIT – Completing the second half quicker than the first half swimming cycling running or any other sport.

NEUTRAL GAIT– this is a running style that needed a stable flexible running shoe. Under 25% of runners have a neutral gait other over-pronate or under pronate.

NEGATIVE SPLIT – the second half of your training racing is faster than the first.
If an out and back run you came back quicker than the time it took to get to the turn.

LACE LOCKS – a quick release system for fast entry into running shoes.

LACTIC ACID – produced by exercise due to the incomplete break down of glucose during the production of producing energy when in intense exercise.
A by-product of anaerobic work which slows and can stop muscle contraction.

Level 1 is at 65-75% of MHR easy to moderate effort needed to improve endurance also for warming up and recovery. Easy to talk with full sentences.
Level 2 is at 75-85% MHR and required for developing aerobic power. Many athletes fail to train in this zone; they either train too slow or too fast. Talking for more than 5 seconds is difficult at level 2.
Level 3 is at 85-95% intensity. This effort is needed to develop Lactate Threshold (LT) and required for Olympic distance events and the ability to cope with build up of fatigue. Talking is difficult especially more than 3-4 words at one time.
Level 4 is above 95% and needed for V02 max sprinting talking is almost impossible. Efforts can only be maintained for a few seconds.
L.S.D: Long Slow Distance -training at sub maximal effort to improve endurance.

LT LACTATE THRESHOLD – this is when the blood lactate reaches a level in the blood during intense exercise and accumulates faster than the body can get rid of it. This is a much better indicator for the endurance athlete than the test for V02 maximum. You have to be rested for 96 hours before this type of testing to get an accurate result, hard training in the 4 days before could give you a lower result.
M-DOT – The official name for the Ironman logo. Ironman finishers will often have the M Dot tattoo put on their lower leg.

MHR – maximum heart rate.

MIDDLE DISTANCE TRIATHLON (70.3) – often referred to as 70.3 (miles) 1.2 mile swim 56 mile Bike 13.1 mile Run.

MODERN PENTATHLON This multi sport event involves swords pistols swimming running and a horse competition. The Olympic modern pentathletes will compete in 5 disciplines all on the same day .Fencing swimming 200m (freestyle), show jumping and then finally combing a shooting (air pistol) and a running race during a 3km run. Great Britain’s Heather Fell is the silver medal holder. For moor info click on

MULTI-SPORTS – events such as Aquathon, Decathlon, Pentathlon and Triathlon, those events that combine more than one sport.

OLYMPIC DISTANCE TRIATHLON – 1500m Swim 40km Bike 10km Run

OVER-PRONATION – the foot when running has too much motion at the top of the foot and the foot rolls inwards. Often as a result of a flexible foot. A curve lasted shoe or see a running gait expert for individual orthotics. Lower leg and knee injuries are associated with over-pronate running style.

OVERREACHING – create extra fatigue to improve i.e. a training camp or an increase block of training, but needs 2-14 days to recover to notice any benefits.
PR – Passive recovery.

PERIODISATION – describes the training year and its phases each part has a part to play in total fitness. Microcycle last 7 days, Mesocycle lasts 4 weeks
Macro cycle last 12 months. Quadrennial cycle last 4 years and is also known as an Olympic. Long term cycle is the whole career of the athlete.

PKWS – post killer workouts give you confidence but without adequate rest can lead to hormonal imbalances and overtraining and disappointing results.

PONTOON – This is the floating jetty for triathletes to dive from at the start of the triathlon.

POST RACE NUTRITION – Hydration and the “carbohydrate window “of opportunity is when your muscles have the best ability to refuel.

PRONATION – helps the foot absorb shock by naturally rolling forward.

PROPRIOCEPTION – manufacturers of compression clothing believe that wearing compression garments give feedback to us quicker where our limbs are at that time. Proprioception is impaired when we are tired.

PRIME – this is where extra points or prizes are given to the athlete.
Triathlon – first out of the swim Fastest in T1, Fastest Bike Fastest T2 or fastest Run.
Cycling – first to a point or hill wins that prime of the day, the most points during the race or multi day competition is the point’s winner.

PYRAMID SET – this is a set where you build up the distance then reduce the distance again. A pyramid 1500m swim session could be a broken down into the following.  50m/100/150m/200m/250m/250m/200m/150m/100m/50m.

RACE BELT – Attach your race number to your elasticised belt. Pin your number onto the belt. Have the number showing on your back for the bike pull belt round so you can display your number on the front for the run.

RCT = Racecourse Training

REPETITION – this is often referred to as a rep for short. The whole of the effort i.e. 100m swim or 400m run.

REST DAYS – novice or athletes who underperform ignore having rest days while the experienced athletes know how important they are and don’t shout from the roof tops their importance. This is when your body recovers. Elite athletes who have been endurance training for 5 or more years may often have VERY EASY active recovery days but remember they have more rest per day anyway; they may train much more but will have extra sleep and quality rest between training.

REST INTERVALS (RI) – this is the recovery time between hard efforts sets or reps.

RESTING METABOLIC RATE (RMR) - is the calories burned (needed) daily without calories required for activity.

ROLLER COASTER WORKOUT – after a thorough warm up a typical session could be.
Swim easy hand paddles and flippers hard without. Half and quarter lengths hard and rest of length easy rather than stick to full lengths.
Even consider half length easy, then hard to wall then hard off wall for half a length then easy for last half of length.
Bike non-stop 1 minute seated high cadence, 1 minutes out of the saddle low cadence, 1 minute seated low cadence, 1 minute out of saddle high cadence. Another session could be ride up the first 2 hills easy then the next 2 hills very hard then continue riding and repeat while alternating cycling every odd hill (1-3-5 etc) in the saddle and the even hills (2,4,6,8,10) out of the saddle irrespective of the severity and length of the upcoming hill.
Run roller coaster session could be find a very rolling area then after a thorough warm up intersperse the hard running with a segment of easy running.
Run down a hill up a hill easy, medium effort hard up medium down, easy up very hard down. If you want to go faster consider walking to recover then run much faster.
Unlike Fartlek you are trying something new with hard running on time and terrain.

ROPE Rating of Perceived Exertion – A scale of effort numbered as 1 -20. One = sitting in a chair.6-7 Very light effort. 9-10 Very light 11-12 Easy light effort. 13-14 medium light effort. 15-16 Hard. 17-18 Very Hard 19-20 is VERY VERY HARD.

RP – race pace efforts. + RP = faster than race pace for shorter periods. –RP slower than race pace

RPE – race pace efforts

RPM – Revs per minute while cycling.

RRCA– Road Runners Club of America, national association of running clubs.

SEND OFF – this can be either the time that the athlete starts in a handicap race with the objective that all athletes of mixed ability aim to finish together or the time that the athlete starts each interval. This could be starting each 100m every 2 minutes, so the quicker you swim the more rest you get but your send off time is 2 minutes.

SET – a number of repetition efforts is a set.

SHOT – a shot describes energy consumed from a gel to avoid hitting the wall.
SPLASH MASH DASH – another description for triathlon.

SPLITS – The different parts of your Triathlon, the Swim, The time it takes to exit the swim get to your bike exit transition, the time it takes to cycle the bike leg, the time it takes to enter transition rack your bike and exit again, the time it takes to complete the run section. Your total race divided into split times.

SPECIAL NEEDS BAG – the bag you are given at the ironman to put your favourite foods and drinks in. It is then handed to you during the bike section.

SPORTS BARS – Too many to mention here. Full report on each one to follow shortly. See Gels above for web sites that make gels and bars.

SPRINT TRIATHLON – the standard distance for the sprint triathlon is 750m swim 20km Cycle 5km Run.

SU = Spin ups or Speed up -increase cadence over 60 seconds from 60 to 100 revs per minute.

SWIM SESSION – S.K.P.D = Swim Kick Pull Drills.

T1-Transition one, from swimming to bike section.
T2 – Transition from cycling to running.
T3 – often referred to as recovery or sleep

TAPER – You reduce the volume & intensity or both prior to a competition to allow the body to recover and store extra energy.
Training cycles explained - Like steps up a 20 storey building.

Macrocycle = Long term goal 6months to 10 years. Basement to 1st Floor
Microcyle = Shortest training period, small steps to a Macrocycle. -Individual steps
Mesocycle = ie. 3 weeks hard 1 week easy – can be longer – Flight of steps
Quadrennila cycle = Sport longevity – From the bottom to the top.
The above are stepping stones to progress.
Training log abbreviations
Accels = Accelerations - AT = Altitude training -  B2B = Back to back -2 sports one after the other.

BRICKS= two multisport sessions continous

C = Cycle -Con= Continuous - CT = Cross Train - CX = Cross Train - D = Duathlon- DIST – Distance - DO= Day Off - E = Easy intensity - Flex - Flexibility - Hi = Hard intensity
Hills = Hill training - Hr = Hours - IRP – Ironman race pace - LO = Low Intensity workout - Med = Medium pace work out - Min = Minutes - MOD = Moderate Intensity
O/R = Off Road - R = Run- RD = Rest day - RP = Race pace - SBR = Swim Bike Run - Sec = Seconds - SM = Sub-Maximal Intensity - ST = Strength -  T = Triathlon - Tech – Technique Training

Tempo Training

Tempo training builds up strength needed during a marathon or dessert run.
10km pace is hard running for 30-55 minutes. Effort level 9>10 out of 10

Tempo running is a hard effort that is easier than 10km pace Effort level 7.5>9 out of 10

It develops your anaerobic & lactate threshold which is vital for faster running or being able to cope with running long distances more easier.

Tempo Session
Warm 5 minutes Easy
Warmer for another 5 minute Faster
Main set
Run anything form 10-45 minutes. Tempo running is at a pace you could only maintain without slowing down for up to 80 minutes.
Cool down
10 minutes gradually slowing down

Tempo Test to see if you are running at the correct effort
Breathing test
Easy running -3 foot strikes breathing in and out twice
Tempo Running – 2 foot strikes to breathing in and out once
Hard running -5km 10km race or intervals –  1 foot strike to breathing in an out

Tempo running is the point when you begin to build up waste product in the working muscles (legs when running) just below lactate threshold which is a pace you can ONLY maintain for 60 minutes.
The fitter you get the Tempo run allows you to run the marathon 42km at a much more comfortable pace and allows you to recover while you are running.
Running above threshold no matter how fit you fatigue builds up during 60 minutes so you must stop or slow down.

I consider the tempo run to be much more important for distance runners than intervals training.

TIT – Triathlete in Training

Trans = Transition area - TT = Transition training or - TT = Time Trial - TRI = Refers to either a Triathlon or Tri bars - UT = Up the tempo

TRASHED – an athlete that has paced themselves well hydrated and had correct nutrition has performed to the best of their ability will have extended themselves and will feel like trash, wasted.
TRIATHLETE – an athlete who has competed in a Swim Bike Run multi-sport event called a Triathlon.

TRIATHLON ESSENTIALS – Aquapshere open water goggles, wet suit, triathlon suit, time trial bike with tri bars, aero wheels, sunglasses, cycle helmet, cycle shoes Velcro easy entry and exit, clip less pedal system,  run shoes fitted with elastic laces.

TARGET ZONES – are a range of heart rate zones designed for a specific purpose. Makes you more productive with your time. They are called recovery 55-70%, endurance 60-75%, aerobic & tempo 70-80%, and anaerobic threshold 80-90%. All zones are required to improve overall fitness, knowing how much when in each zone is the secret to success to improve different components of fitness.

THRZ = Target Heart Rate Zone – staying within a planned heart rate range to improve one type of fitness.

TMG – TWG – TYG – training monthly goals, training weekly goals, training yearly goals. These are short mid and long term goals you aim to achieve. TRANSITION - this is the area between swim and run where the bike and equipment is kept to change between swim to bike and bike to run.

TRI-SUIT - a one piece suit that you use to swim bike run so you do not need to change clothes during the triathlon saving time. Made from quick drying breathable with a chamois. A two piece tri-suit has more ventilation, cooler and allows more movement.

TT – time trial efforts.

TUCK – in the aerodynamic position.

TURBO – is an indoor bike accessory that attached to the rear wheel and creates resistance. A stationary trainer is Ideal when the weather is not suitable (Dark Cold Windy Icy etc) and you can work much harder more safely and stop when ever you need to. Also you can train more scientifically to a planned session without having to worry about other road users or pot holes.

TYPE 1 MUSCLE FIBER – small aerobic muscle that can produce easy & steady efforts for long periods of time. High resistance to low fatigue and slow contraction time.

TYPE 2 MUSCLE FIBER – muscles that can produce high energy efforts.

Low resistance to fatigue but fast reaction time.

USCF – United States Cycling Federation the governing body for amateur cycling.

UNDER PRONATION (supination) – a ruining style that has a rigid foot motion.
When the foot hits the ground it rolls along the outside edge. Seek running gait help for orthotics. The minority of runners run this way so there is a limited number of shoe made for this type of gait.
Injuries can occur if you have a high arch as you cannot absorb the shock and so need a cushioned sole.

VO2 – maximum oxygen uptake capacity of a person to use oxygen during one minute. Increasing exercise. An effort that you are only able to maintain for up to 2 minutes. An elite athlete would have a V02 max of 75

VT Ventilatory Threshold normally coincides with anaerobic threshold. This is when you are unable to supply enough o2 to meet the demands of the working muscles.

WTC – World Triathlon Corporation –

XTERRA – This is a global triathlon series with at least one race in every continent. Swimming cycling and running off-road. The World Championships are held in Maui Hawaii in October each year after qualifying races all around the world.

ZIPP – a brand of cycling wheels. Aero wheels shallow deep section and disc wheels for every type of rider and course.

ZOOT – A triathlon clothing company based in Hawaii called Zoot.

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Mark is a 31 times Iron distance finisher for coaching and training tips log onto


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